Pedigree Metrics

Main Table - Listing various metrics computed for each individual, including generation number (GN), inbreeding coefficient (F)
Main Table - Listing various metrics computed for each individual, including generation number (GN), inbreeding coefficient (F)

PedScope can compute many pedigree-related metrics for every animal in a population:

  • Wright's coefficient of inbreeding (F) - either to a fixed depth of ancestry (e.g. 16 generations), or using all ancestry available. Our computation of the inbreeding coefficient is amazingly fast e.g. to compute all inbreeding coefficients to the maximum depth possible for the UK Golden Retriever pedigree - some 500,000+ dogs going back up to 65 generations - took just 7 seconds [1].
  • Ancestral inbreeding using the direct method of Ballou [2] (the ancestral inbreeding coefficient is the cumulative proportion of an individual's genome that has been previously exposed to inbreeding in its ancestors).
  • Ancestry metrics for each individual including: the number of generations ancestors seen, the number of generations that were full (i.e. all ancestors known), the total number of ancestor occurrences seen, the number of unique ancestors, and the pedigree completeness (the % of the pedigree that is known).
  • Generation number (GN) - this can be calculated in two different ways. It can either be calculated as one plus the maximum GN of its parents, with founders assigned GN = 0 (as defined by Thompson [3]), or it can be set as one plus the mean of the GN of the parents (as defined by Brinks et al [4]). Or you can have both.
  • Relation counts - including the number of offspring, litters, families, sibs, half sibs, sire sibs, dam sibs, full sibs, #litter sibs can be tabulated.
  • Age-related metrics - such as the generational age, age at death, age if living, age at first child, age at last child, age of sire/dam at birth can also be calculated if your input data includes the date/year of birth.

All these individual metrics can be calculated and displayed in the main PedScope window as a table. You can sort the table on any column by clicking the headings. For further information please see the Main Table Columns section of the User Guide.

PedScope also calculate partial inbreeding coefficients and kinship coefficients: see Relations Reports.



1. Using Windows 7, 64 bit, AMD Phenom II X6 1035T processor 2.6Gz, 8Gb memory.
2. Ballou, JD. Ancestral Inbreeding Only Minimally Affects Inbreeding Depression in Mammalian Populations, Journal of Heredity 1997, 8:169-178.
3. Thompson, E. Pedigree Analysis in Human Genetics. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore., 1986.
4. Brinks, J., R. Clark, and F. Rice. Estimation of genetic trends in beef cattle, J. Anim.Sci 20: 903, 1962.


PedScope is a product of Tenset Technologies Ltd, © 2011-2018 All Rights Reserved. v2.5.01, May 2018
Apple, Mac and Macintosh are trademarks of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. Microsoft and Windows are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the U.S. and/or other countries. Lytebox image popup software (www.lytebox.com) © Markus Hay, used with permission under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Attribution 3.0 license. Siberian Tiger image by S. Taheri, used with permission under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 Generic license. Privacy Policy