Founder Analysis

Founder Metrics Summary Report - listing the founders of a group of animals, showing the %contribution to the group, the %founder alleles retained, and the likelihood that each founders genes have only been passed down to at most one member of the group

Founder Metrics Summary Report - listing the founders of a group of animals, showing the %contribution to the group, the %founder alleles retained, and the likelihood that each founders genes have only been passed down to at most one member of the group

Founder Metrics Contribution Detail Report - Matrix with founders in columns and group members in rows, giving the %contribution of each founder to each descendant

Founder Metrics Contribution Detail Report - Matrix with founders in columns and group members in rows, giving the %contribution of each founder to each descendant

Metrics of genetic diversity can be computed for any group of individuals within the pedigree data set. Typically such a group defines the 'current population', or a subset of current population that is available for breeding. In addition, you choose the depth of ancestry of the group members to be analysed.

PedScope provides various ways to analyse the relationship between any group of individuals and their founders (where a founder is defined as an ancestor that has neither sire nor dam within the ancestry under study), and can compute the following important values:

  • Founder Equivalents - the number of equally contributing founders that would be expected to produce the same level of genetic diversity as the group under study.
  • Founder Genome Equivalents - the number of equally contributing founders with no random loss of alleles in the offspring, that would be expected to produce the same level of genetic diversity as the group under study (i.e., adjusted for genetic drift)[5].
  • Effective Number of Ancestors - a related measure to the above, but which tries to take into account 'bottlenecks' in the pedigree [6]. A separate report lists the most influential ancestors of the group under study that lie behind the number of effective ancestors, together with their marginal contributions.

You can tabulate all the founding ancestors of a group, including columns for:

  • The % of the given group's genes due to each founder
  • The proportion of each founders genes that have been retained within the given group
  • The genome uniqueness of each founder (i.e. the probability that within the group a given founder's alleles are only inherited by one member of the group)

You can then drill down to display a founder contribution matrix that gives the %contribution of each founder to each descendant within the group, or to view the genome uniqueness for each founder with respect to each descendant (i.e., the probability that the given descendant is the only member of the current population that has inherited the respective founder's genes). To compute these metrics PedScope performs a gene drop analysis for the individuals under study and their ancestors [7].

For further information please see the Reports section of the User Guide.

Founder Metrics Summary Report - listing the founders of a group of animals, showing the %contribution to the group, the %founder alleles retained, and the likelihood that each founders genes have only been passed down to at most one member of the group

Founder Metrics Summary Report - listing the founders of a group of animals, showing the %contribution to the group, the %founder alleles retained, and the likelihood that each founders genes have only been passed down to at most one member of the group

Founder Metrics Contribution Detail Report - Matrix with founders in columns and group members in rows, giving the %contribution of each founder to each descendant

Founder Metrics Contribution Detail Report - Matrix with founders in columns and group members in rows, giving the %contribution of each founder to each descendant



1. Lacy, RC. Analysis of founder representation in pedigrees: Founder equivalents and founder genome equivalents. Zoo Biology 8:111-124, 1989.
2. Boichard, D, Maignel L, and Verrier, E. The value of using probabilities of gene origin to measure genetic variability in a population. Genetics Selection Evolution, 1997; 29(1): 5-23.
3. MacCluer, JW, VandeBerg JL, Read B and Ryder OA. Pedigree analysis by computer simulation. Zoo Biology 5, 147/160, 1986.


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